Etter å ha flyktet fra styrkene til opprørshæren, krysset den tykkeste skog, mesteparten av tiden trett og utslitt av tusen kilometer med vandring, samme som tusener andre flyktninger fra Demokratiske Republikk Congo, nådde de Tanzania, svekket og plaget av sykdom og uvisshet over tid.
To hundrede kilometer, øst av innsjøen Tanganyika, leiren “The Camp of Mkuggwa) … Read the rest
It is essential to analyze civilizations (rather than states), or economic or political systems, as units, in the spirit of seeking solutions rather than making condemnations. Even if the deep roots of violence and war are part of the cosmology which in turn is collective and subconscious, there may be ways of breaking the collective into sub-collectives and individuals … Read the rest
Four forces have been major cause of the development of violence in the African macro-cultural level: religion, technology, economy, and empires. These have not always acted separately and often have supported each other. For example, the expansion of Christianity started with the conversion of Emperor Constantine I of Rome in the year 313. The religious conversion of an emperor started … Read the rest
In the 60s, most of the African countries snatched precipitately their independences from the colonialists. Most of the time without a broad and unify vision to reconcile the leadership and the popular emancipatory aspirations of the people. In this context, without considering the specificity of the continent history, the victory of emancipation was short-lived and aborted. The … Read the rest